Asthma and the environment effects in asthma disease
Asthma and the environment is important subject to understand to control asthma. Because of the super sensitivity created by the autonomic nervous system, the asthmatic is always in a vulnerable state. He walks a tightrope much of the time, trying to avoid the various stimuli that could throw him off-balance and into an asthmatic attack. Asthma and the Environment is the troublemakers are everywhere, from the air that he breathes to the food that he eats. It makes sense that the asthmatic has to be very familiar with all of the environmental stimuli that can cause his asthma to flare up. What are these troublemakers? Allergens are the most common of these triggers. Because allergens are usually a prime suspect and quite controllable, I will devote most of this chapter to discussing them. Allergens play such a crucial role in understanding asthma and in understanding the different approaches to asthma treatment (environmental control, diet, and immunotherapy), that we must become as knowledgeable as possible about these substances.
An allergen is anything that causes an allergic reaction. Allergens come in different forms. There are aero-allergens that are found in the air that we breathe and there are good allergens. Aero-allergens are the more common culprits. Some airborne allergens can be managed through environmental control. For example, eliminating animal dander from the environment will reduce your chances of developing an adverse allergic-asthmatic reaction to an animal. You may have to give up horseback riding and stick to the merry-go-round. But, some airborne allergens are not so easy to get rid of Because they are everywhere, almost all of the time. For example, eliminating household dust or mold is very difficult, or perhaps impossible. When total removal of the allergen is not possible, a combination of environmental. control and immunotherapy can be used. If we cannot eliminate exposure to the allergen, we can at least attempt to minimize its effects from asthma and the environment.
Asthma and the environment will cause to allergy injections can be very effective in diminishing or prevent reactions to some specific allergens. Food allergens are less common and subject to greater individual differences. They require a more individual approach a may be controlled through diet. Non allergic environmental stimuli such as atmosphere pollutants and even extremes in weather can also produce asthma symptoms. The exact mechanisms by which smoke, an irritant auto fumes; smog, a form of pollution; or high or low humidity precipitate asthma symptoms are not always clear, Nevertheless, these factors can really cause serious problem of asthma and the environment.
Asthma and the environment causes for many of these environmental stimuli are controllable. You should be aware of them. This chapter will describe how legends cause an allergic reaction, and I will describe in death the environmental troublemakers. This chapter on asthma and the environment deals with the first of four basic ingredients asthma treatment and Asthma and the Environment. Article 3 deals with asthma and food allergies in which I discuss diets designed to reduce the ingestion of food allergens. Chapter 4 deals with immunotherapy in which I discuss allergy shots as a means to reduce the asthmatic’s reaction to troublemakers. Chapter 5 deals with drug therapy and discusses a variety of medications used to establish and maintain and control over asthma symptoms with asthma and the environment.
Environmental Stimuli in Asthma
How does an allergen provoke an allergic reaction? To answer this, recall the discussion in the Introduction, regarding allergy triggers. The following chain of events takes place:
- The allergen is inhaled or ingested for.
- Specific antibodies (IgE) are produced by the asthmatic white blood cells. Their function is to protect the body against various particulate invaders such as parasites.Unfortunately, in the allergic asthmatic, such elements as pollen, dust, mold and parasites all of which are particular are mistakenly viewed by the body as invaders.
- Mast cells line the entire respiratory and gastrointestinal tract other places that are in contact with the external world.
- The IgE molecules are in pairs and are fixed on the membrane of the mast cell. These IgE molecules are specifically programmed to recognize certain molecules from particulate matter (pollen, parasites, and dust) when the IgE molecules have been exposed to the particulates several times.
- After exposure to the appropriate allergen, the allergen will combine with the IgE antibody on the mast cell.
- The union of allergen and IgE on the mast cell is disruptive, causing the secretion of various chemical mediators.
- These mediators cause physiological changes which, in turn, cause asthmatic symptoms.
Thus, there is an interaction between an inhaled allergen and an Ige antibody bound to the mast cell surface that triggers a galleries of calcium-and energy-dependent steps that lead to the generation and release of mediators. A very important mediator is a general but not always the most important one in asthma, is histamine. Histamine causes swelling, irritation, and inflammation of the lining of the bronchi (mucous membrane). It also produces increased mucus production and temporary or transient bronchospasm from asthma and the environment.
Another mediator, Leukotriene (LTE4), plays an important role. It has a very slow onset, but its action is very prolonged. This is why the bronchi stay contracted or constricted hours after the initial allergen attacks them. While there are other mediators that are also important of asthma and the environment, brief mention should be made of the mediator system known as the ostaglandings that control the mediators affecting the lungs.
Asthma and the environment there are many prostaglandins. Some produce relaxation of the bronchi, while some are potentially harmful, producing concretion. It is not clear how the prostaglandins work, but it appears that they will become very important agents in the we to help control asthma. More about that later. So as you can see, the mediators mediate the changes in the breathing that both produce the asthmatic state and maintain the normal state.